All answers must be in your own words. This course covers the Ottoman, Savafid and Mughal empires, from the rise of Ottoman rule in the mid 1400’s to the dawn of modernity in the Middle East … Sons revolted against fathers to capture the throne. It's a balancing act. Their revolt broke out. Copyright. Mughal Empire : Slowly the regional satraps proclaimed independence against a weak Emperor. Internal and External Factors Ushering the Decline of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires The Safavid Empire lost control as the country was overrun by Afghan tribes, according to Black (236). The heavy taxes he levied impoverished the farming population. More unworthy men were made Emperors. Their characters have destroyed the empire to a large extent. Many of them became ease-loving and fond of excessive luxury. It expands to its full glory under Akbar in the second half of the 16 th Century. Wealth and power changed their character for the worst. Aurangzeb came to the throne by killing his brothers. E.g The empire continued to expand during Shah Abbas's reign but after his death, the dynasty gradually lost its vigor. Aurangzeb undermined the great empire of his forefathers not because he lacked character or ability but because he lacked political, social, and economic insight. He was free of vices common among kings and lived a simple and austere life. The disease became more serious. The Origins of Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler who was descended from the Turko-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side.He was thrown from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, and turned to India to find a place to settle. Lack of finance made it difficult to maintain a large number of army. The condition of the Indian peasant gradually worsened during the 17th and 18th centuries. Aurangzeb’s religious policy caused revolts by Rajputs, Sikhs, Jats and Marathas. E.g the beginnings of the decline of the Mughal empire can be traced back to Aurangzeb who inherited a large empire and yet adopted an expansionist policy. Aurangzeb was a strong contributing factor to the decline of the Mughal empire. rajput. Internal and External Factors Influencing Management. Their territories were tempting to foreign armies and companies alike. If the Emperor’s person declined or his policy turned wrong, the Empire was bound to suffer. The Mughal empire came to an inglorious end. Rs. What led to the decline of the Mughal Empire?-Shah Jahan used heavy taxes to built monuments instead of building roads and canals for farmers They could not save the Empire from rapid decline. Some dream of independence. It declined for various reasons. He ruled at the advice of a dancing girl named Lal Kumari. Akbar realized this need from the beginning of his rule. But his short-sighted attempt later to reduce the strength of the Rajput rajas and extend the imperial sway over their lands led to the withdrawal of their loyalty from the Mughal throne. PreserveArticles.com: Preserving Your Articles for Eternity. Besides this, the Mughal rulers spent lavishly on buildings and monuments. What were the causes behind it? The wars of succession became extremely fierce and destructive during the 18th century and resulted in great loss of life and property. In the absence of any fixed rule of succession, the Mughal dynasty was always plagued after the death of a king by a civil war between the princes. Economic hardships grew much worse under heavy taxes and revolts were started by discontent citizens. T he Decline and Fall of the Safavid Empire is at NYUAD on September 14 from 6.30pm to 8pm and is open to the public. PreserveArticles.com is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. Earlier, many able persons from the lower classes had been able to rise to the ranks of nobility, thus infusing fresh blood into it. 2 See answers Finally, Aurangzeb’s Deccan policy sounded the death-knell of the Mughal Empire.  Aurangzeb’s religious policy caused revolts by Rajputs, Sikhs, Jats and Marathas. Weak and incapable rulers. The burden of administration grew with the growth of the Empire. "What Were The Internal And External Factors That Led To The Decline Of The Ottoman Mughal And Safavid Empires" Essays and Research Papers . His absence from the north for long 26 years was his biggest blunder. Attacks by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali, which were themselves the consequences of the weakness of the Empire, drained the Empire of its wealth, ruined its trade and industry in the North, and almost destroyed its military power. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. In order to increase emperors’ power, prestige, and income, the nobles formed groups and factions against each other and even against the king. Mughal Empire faced crisis caused by a number of factors towards the end of the seventeenth century. The weakness of the king could have been successfully overcome and covered up by an alert, efficient, and loyal nobility. Finally, the foreign invasions completely shattered the economy. The Mughal Empire flourished under the Great Mughals, the first of whom was Babur and the last Aurangzeb. Distances were enormous. With the conquest of the South by Aurangzeb, it covered almost all India from Kashmir to river Kaveri and from Kabul to Chittagong it became too vast to be governed from one center at the command of one man. Irfan Habib has emphasised on the ‘agrarian crisis’ which led to the decline of the Empire. The Americans are now supposedly in decline. The Maratha War in the Deccan continued till the death of Aurangzeb. The Mughal Empire of India was no exception. Military Weakness The organisation of the Mughal army along feudal lines, the practice of taking wives, concubines and slave-girls on the battle –field and the failure of the Emperors to improve armaments and fighting tactics weakened and demoralized the Mughal army. Introduction– write a few introductory lines about the decline of Mughal empire. Decline of the Mughal Empire KAREN LEONARD University of California, Irvine Most historians of the Mughal empire currently emphasize economic factors in their attempts to locate and measure the causes of imperial decline in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century India. The Mughal court consisted of four groups of nobles, the Turanis, the Iranis, the Afghans and the Indian born Muslims. The emperors were too weak to control them. Some of them became too selfish. He was too old to rule effectively, and died within five years. What factors led to the fall of the Mughal empire in India? It came from many factors such as religious differences. The Safavid Empire began in Azerbaijan. A vacuum awaits the British. Though big in size, the Mughals army could not show its strength in the Rajput or the Maratha war even under Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb himself had in the beginning adhered to the Rajput alliance by raising Jaswant Singh of Kamer and Jai Singh of Amber to the highest of ranks. This exposed the weakness of the […] Their generals became lazy and pleasure loving. Various factors which led to the decline of Mughal Empire were: After Aurangzeb’s death, Mughal Empire saw various wars of succession which made the empire weak. Most of them spent time in plots, conspiracies, and court intrigues. Some of the wars did not add even an inch to the Mughal Empire. i. Decline Of The Maratha Empire ... Acting on behalf of the Mughal emperor, the Maratha army, led by ­Sadashivrao Bhau, meets the Afghans and is defeated in the Third Battle of Panipat (1761): the first big dent on what was till now an expanding Maratha power. Aurangzeb was succeeded by his son Bahadur Shah. This was because of the following factors: a) Because of the decline of the Mughal Empire, Surat faced a huge loss of markets and productivity. Aurangzeb inherited a large empire, yet he adopted a policy of extending it further to the farthest geographical limits in the south at … 4. The Safavids gave up on the smart way of doing that and there is a lesson there for empires in general." F.Answer the following questions briefly. The Later Mughal Rulers (1707 A.D.-1857 A.D.): Rise of independent states in the 18th century: With the decline of the Mughal Empire a number of provinces seceded from the empire and several independent states came into existence. The Emperors after Aurangzeb are called the latter Mughals. Though the Ottoman Empire persisted for 600 years, it succumbed to what most historians describe as a long, slow decline, despite efforts to modernize. Aurangzeb made an attempt to reverse the secular policy by imposing the jizyah (tax imposed on non-Muslim people), destroying many of the Hindu temples in the north, and putting certain restrictions on the Hindus. Independence of Provincial Rulers: Under the later Mughals, the bigger subhas, or provinces virtually became independent. Or The Mughal Empire had to face a variety of crises towards the closing years of the 17th century. Aurangzeb’s futile but arduous campaign against the Marathas extended over many years; it drained the resources of his Empire and ruined the trade and industry of the Deccan. Ans. In reality, the existing means of communication and the economic and political structure of the country made it difficult to establish a stable centralized administration over all parts of the country. There was deterioration and demoralisation of the Mughal army.The soldiers cared more about their personal benefits than winning the battles. The economic stability of the empire was ruined because of the constant wars. The Mughal Empire at its zenith commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent. Aurangzeb’s absence from the north for over 25 years and his failure to subdue the Marathas led to deterioration in administration; this undermined the prestige of the Empire and its army. As central authority weakened, the north-western frontiers, left unprotected, attracted foreign invasions. The Indians did not have the ideal of living and dying for the nation. Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire: 1. Mughals ruled India for almost 350 years. Of course, the spirit of nationalism did not exist in Europe as well at that time but the European states like France, Spain and England had grown up into str… So, revolts broke out in many parts. Similarly, his Rajput policy proved disastrous. leaders that ruled northwest India's small kingdoms. THE DECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE: Edited by Meena Bhargava; Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building, 1, Jai Singh Road, New Delhi-110001. The contemporary historian Khafi Khan wrote: “In the brief reign of Jahnder, violence had full sway. Aurangzeb's religious policy The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb's religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Later, the existing families of nobles began to monopolies all offices, barring the way to fresh comers. The Mughal Empire, 1526–1761 The significance of Mughal rule. Its stability was essentially founded on the policy of noninterference with the religious beliefs and customs of the people, fostering of friendly relations between Hindus and Muslims. Hope it is helpful to you .. He possessed great ability and capacity for work. Or The Mughal Empire had to face a variety of crises towards the closing years of the 17th century. Aurangzeb’s objective of unifying the entire country under one central political authority was, though justifiable in theory, not easy in practice. At first, Shah Ismail, the founder of the Safavid dynasty, tried to convert members of the Ottoman Empire into Shiites. Discuss the factors that led to the decline of Mughal Empire. The favorite explanations consist of circles, or … The Mughal Empire, 1526–1761 The significance of Mughal rule. The Mughal Empire is growing in size from the time of Akbar. As long as the people were loyal, the empire was strong. After Babur many capable rulers […] Recent articles reiter- This exposed the weakness of the […] It is said that as the Spanish Uicer killed Napoleon, the Deccan Uicer killed Aurangzeb. No empire in history is survived forever. The Decline of Mughal Empire started in eighteenth century. He was defeated and exiled to Rangoon where he died. Causes for Decline and fall of the Mughal Empire. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. Therefore, no group or class of people in the country was interested in maintaining the unity of the country and the Empire. What are the four causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire? i. As is the case, the historians of all hues since the 18 Century have debated the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. Identify the Gunpowder Empires.Include in your answers the leaders of the empires that established them. And the causes which led to the breakup can be traced back to seventeenth century. Brothers fought the wars of succession.Jahangir, as prince Salim, revolted against his father Akbar. Discuss the factors that led to the decline of Mughal Empire. That led to the break-up and degeneration of the Empire. The stability of the Emperor depended on the support of the people. The accession of weak rulers at the center made them strong contenders for power. Decline of the M ughal Empire KAREN LEONARD University of California, Irvine Most historians of the Mughal empire currently emphasize economic factors in their attempts to locate and measure the causes of imperial decline in seventeenth-and eighteenth-century India. What factors led to the fall of the Mughal empire in India? What are the causes for the decline of the Mughal Empire? Recent articles reiterate a standard set of tensions: those between monarch, military and service nobles (mansabdars), landholders (zamindars), and peasants. Aurangzeb's religious orthodoxy and his policy towards the Hindu rulers seriously damaged the stability of the Mughal Empire. Concepts covered in Class 8 the Trail History and Civics for ICSE Middle School chapter 5 Decline of the Mughal Empire are The Decline of the Mughal Empire, Rise of Independent/Regional Kingdoms. During the time of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire had expanded to reach its maximum size. Identify one factor that contributed to the decline of the Islamic empires. The decline of the Mughal empire is usually considered to begin late in the reign of the emperor Aurangzib (1658–1707). As the Mughal empire became very vast, it was difficult for the Mughal rulers to control distant parts of the empire. What economic factors led to the decline and fall of the Gupta Empire? As they fought rapid wars, the Empire lost its vitality quickly. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, bequest of George D. Pratt, 1935, (45.174.28), www.metmuseum.org During Aurangzeb’s reign (1658–1707), the economy of the Mughal Empire began to decline. After him, the wars of succession came in quick interval. This weakened the … Economic hardships grew much worse under heavy taxes and revolts were started by discontent citizens. He won over the Hindus by his liberal policies. Its soldiers and officers were not paid for many months, and, since they were mere mercenaries, they were constantly disaffected and often verged on a mutiny. The provincial Government looked to the emperor for orders. The armies of the later Mughals had no vigor, courage or capability for bigger military role. He was determined to avoid such a war after his death. Beginning of the decline of the Mughal Empire can be traced to the strong rule of Aurangzeb. The Mughal Emperors that followed Aurangzeb effectively became British or … What are the main causes for the Downfall of the Mughal Empire in India? Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. So he divided the Empire between his three sons but he did not succeed fighting broke out between them. The fratricidal wars among the brothers were of a more serious nature. The Mughal state in the days of Akbar, Jahangir, and Shahjahan was basically a secular state. Nader Shah from Persia, imheriting Persia from the Safavid dynasty led a force on Mughal Emperor, Muhammad Shah who was his host for a prolonged period & whom he humiliated, looting the Mughal treasury. Many nobles lived extravagantly and beyond their means. The rise of independent states led to the disintegration of the Mughal Empire. If you want to run an empire, there is a toolkit. Thousands of trained soldiers and hundreds of capable military commanders and efficient and tried officials were killed. The civil wars resulted in the death of many brilliant commanders and brave and experienced solders. The following are the causes for the decline of Mughal Empire. The Mughal Dynasty suffered from a grave internal problem.it was the problem of succession. Both the Hindu and the Muslim nobles, zamindars, and chiefs ruthlessly oppressed and exploited the common people irrespective of their religion. On the whole the decline of the Mughal empire can be attributed to many factors. After Babur many capable rulers sat on Delhi’s throne but after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 series of internal revolt and external factors led to the ultimate decline of Mughal empire in 1857. The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II (1759–1806) made futile attempts to reverse the Mughal decline but ultimately had to seek the protection of the Emir of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Abdali, which led to the Third Battle of Panipat between the Maratha Empire and the Afghans (led by Abdali) in 1761. Subsequently, most of them became corrupt and led a lavish lifestyle at the expense of the state treasury. However the Mughals lost their empire and their power, long before its formal abolition in 1858. Aurangzeb inherited a large empire, yet he adopted a policy of extending it further to the farthest geographical limits in the south at the great expense of men and materials. When rulers and the nobles became unworthy of their position, the Mughal army too became weak and inefficient. The first six Mughal Emperors from Babar to Aurangzeb are described as the great Mughals. Grouped as Turanis, Iranis, and Hindustanis, and they quarreled among themselves. They became lazy and luxurious. Mughal Empire faced crisis caused by a number of factors towards the end of the seventeenth century. Mughals ruled India for almost 350 years. The gunpowder empires include Mughal, Qing, Tokugawa, and Russia. But Aurangzeb reversed his system. Essay on the causes of the decline of Mughal Empire. Not all the nobles, however, bad become weak and inefficient. Aurangzeb’s campaigns in the Deccan region decreased his military and financial power. The military weakness became a potential cause of the decline of the Mughals Empire. Shah Jahn killed his brother. Many ruined peasants formed roving bands of robbers and adventurers, often under the leadership of the zamindars, and thus undermined law and order and the efficiency of the Mughal administration. The Mughal nobles of earlier times formed a brave class of royal supporters. Hyderabad: the later Mughal nobility showed the worst vices of court life. Safavid and Mughal Empires The decline of the Mongol Empire laid ground for the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires. All of them were to a considerable extent the result of the oppression of the Mughal revenue officials over the peasantry. The Empire therefore began to sink under its own weight. He came to the throne after the bloody battle with other brothers. In the 18 th century, many political reasons led to the decline of the Mughal Empire. ANS: Yes this was one of the main reasons for the decline of Mughal Empire. In fiscal terms, the throne lost the revenues needed to pay its chief officers, the emirs (nobles) and their entourages. The Empire lost men and money endlessly. Aurangzeb left the Empire with many problems unsolved, the situation was further worsened by the ruinous wars of succession, which followed his death. Surat, which was an important trade center during the Mughal period, began to decline towards the end of the seventeenth century. But the character of the nobility had also deteriorated. Another useless man, Farrukhsiyar became a puppet in hands of two Sayyid Brothers who became the Kingmakers. The military weakness became a potential cause of the decline of the Mughals Empire. His administrative system also started collapsing, as the governors started consolidating power in their own provinces. Q41. Aurangzeb was a strong contributing factor to the decline of the Mughal empire. What led to the decline of the Ottoman, Mughal, and Safavid empires? In their struggle for power, they took recourse to force, fraud, and treachery. Q41. India was primarily a land of the Hindus. Communications were difficult. It had significant achievements to boast about, culturally as well as economically. Ans. During this time, the empire was under the leadership of Shah Jahan and his son. But degeneration gradually set in . Administration declined in Northern India .provincial rulers felt bold to defy the center. Major Reasons for decline of Mughal Empire are Nobles made heavy demands on the peasants and cruelly oppressed them, often in violation of official regulations. Aurangzeb's extremism caused Mughal territory and creativity to dry up and the Empire went into decline. The Inspiration, which was seen among the Jats, Bundelas, Sikhs, Rajputs and Marathas, was not seen among the Mughals. 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